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微服私访的科学理论依据

作者:admin 发布时间:2020-06-07 17:50

#托福奇葩背景知识系列#托福听力里面有很多让人觉得难以理解的内容,其实回顾内容的时候会发现并不难,只是听的时候由于缺乏相关背景知识,让我们的推导能力受到了限制。所以,我们推出了【托福奇葩背景知识系列】,不仅涨分数,还涨姿势哦!

不仅要相信,而且它还有个学术名称,叫做“走动式管理”,英文名 MBWA(Managing By Wandering Around)

One powerful way to connect with your team members is to get up from your desk and go talk to them, to work with them, to ask questions, and to help when needed. This practice is called Management by Wandering Around, or MBWA.

MBWA might imply an aimless meander around the office, but it's a deliberate and genuine strategy for staying abreast of people's work, interests and ideas. It requires a range of skills, including active listening, observation, recognition, and appraisal.

MBWA also brings participation, spontaneity and informality to the idea of open-door management. It takes managers into their teams' workplaces to engage with the people and processes that keep companies running, to listen to ideas, to collect information, and to resolve problems.

William Hewlett and David Packard, founders of Hewlett Packard (HP), famously used this approach. Tom Peters included lessons learned from HP in his 1982 book, In Search of Excellence, and MBWA immediately became popular. Now, for example, Disney leaders work shifts with their resort teams, and the CEO of waste management firm Veolia regularly goes out with his staff when they collect trash.

MBWA can produce a huge range of results. It can, for example, help you to be more approachable . People are often reluctant to speak with their managers because they feel intimidated or they think that they won't care. But when your team members see you as a person as well as a manager they'll trust you and be more willing to share ideas and pain points with you

Frequent, natural and trusting communication can be infectious, and it encourages people to work together as a team. With better communication and an improved sense of what's happening in your team, you'll likely spot big problems before they happen, and you'll be in a better position to coach your team to avoid them.

Business knowledge, commercial awareness and problem-solving opportunities can all take leaps forward when you better connect with your front line. You'll improve your understanding of the functions, people and processes at work there, and you'll boost people's company and industry knowledge. Everyone is better equipped to perform their roles when they have the right information, and they are energized by an improved flow of ideas.

Morale will likely get a lift from MBWA, too. Casual exchanges and opportunities to be heard really do help people to feel more motivated, more inspired, and more connected. Furthermore, you'll boost accountability and productivity, as any actions that you agree upon with your people will likely get done because you see one another regularly.

The biggest challenge when implementing MBWA is to overcome the habit of being too busy, and to start walking around. These tips can help you to get going.

People will sense your casualness and they'll respond accordingly. Stiff discussions held in formal spaces will lead to rigid responses, so keep your team members at ease with relaxed and unstructured conversations. Hold these where people will likely feel relaxed, such as at their desks or in a neutral place, rather than in your office.

Watch your body language , too, and your dress . Turning up at a production line wearing a crisp pinstriped suit, for instance, may distance you from your people and put them off talking to you.

Take care to sound inquisitive rather than intrusive. You can ask your people what they're working on, how comfortable they feel doing their jobs, what they find difficult, whether they see how their work contributes to the big picture, and so on. Ask them for ideas about how to make things better.

Hold back from saying what you think, and listen actively to your team members' replies. Give them your undivided attention. When they see that you're interested in what they have to say, they'll likely be more open and receptive, and you'll build rapport.

When you talk, be open and truthful. If you don't know the answer to someone's question, find it out afterward and follow up. If you can't share something, say so. Telling half-truths can break down trust, and trust is crucial for successful MBWA.

To take it a step further, consider trying out your team members' work, to experience what they experience and to understand the issues that they face.

Don't favor one department or team more than another, or people may feel left out. Instead, spread your attention evenly. Anyone can have great ideas or need support, so talk to everybody, regardless of their job title or position. If people work remotely, make the effort to get in touch with them. If they work the night shift, stay late to talk to them.

Always look for successes rather than failures and, if you see something good, compliment the person. This is an effective and simple way to show your gratitude and to boost morale.

Share good news and reinstill company goals, values and vision within your team. Tell people how your aims for the team fit with the big picture. Your wanderings are opportunities to share information that helps everyone to understand and do their jobs better.

Effective organizations aren't all about work. MBWA allows you to strike a balance between people's work and their personal lives, and to enjoy the lighter side of your job. Enjoying a joke or two, chatting with team members about their hobbies, and finding out their kids' names helps to build relationships.

You don't need to befriend them on Facebook or shoot pool together after work, but you may be surprised by how great it feels to relate with your colleagues on a personal level.

Don't leave people feeling that you're always looking over their shoulder! Wander around often enough to get a good feel for what's going on – to make it a key part of your management strategy – but not so often that your presence feels like a distraction. Try not to do it at the same time each day: be spontaneous and unplanned, frequent but random.

Your presence alone isn't enough to impact frontline staff performance. Be sure to review the things that you've learned – both the good and the bad – and take action accordingly.

走动管理的概念起源于美国管理学者汤姆·彼得斯(T. J. Peters)与罗伯特·沃德曼(R. H., Jr. Waterman)在一九八二年出版的名著《追求卓越》(In Search of Excellence)一书。书中提到,表现卓越的知名企业中,高阶主管不是成天待在豪华的办公室中,等候部属的报告,而是在日理万机之余,仍能经常到各个单位或部门走动走动。该书作者因此建议,高阶主管应该至少有一半以上的时间要走出办公室,实际了解员工的工作状况,并给予加油打气。走动管理在一九八〇年代蔚为风潮,并与management by walking around一词交互使用。

走动管理不是到各个部门走走而已,而是要搜集最直接的讯息,以弥补正式沟通管道的不足。正式的沟通管道透过行政体系逐级上传或下达,容易生成过滤作用(filtering)以及缺乏完整讯息的缺点。过滤作用经常发生在超过三个层级以上的正式沟通管道中,不论是由上而下或由下而上的讯息传达,在经过层层转达之后,不是原意尽失就是上情没有下达或下情没有上达;另外,透过正式沟通管道搜集到的讯息,缺乏实际情境的辅助,不易让主管做正确的判断,往往会因而失去解决问题的先机。走动管理就是要上层主管勤于搜集最新讯息,并配合情境做最佳的判断,以及早发现问题并解决问题。

敏锐的观察力是走动管理成功的要素。在走动的过程中,主管必须敏锐的观察到工作的情境与人员,及其所透露出的讯息;同时也透过询问、回答、肢体语言等,对讯息做出及时的回应。主管的态度也很重要,如果让员工或同仁有被视察的感觉,主管就很难获得想要获得的讯息;如果来去匆匆,也难达成预期的效果。同时,主管也不必期望每次都能获得新的讯息,只要有机会获得最新讯息,就有机会防患事发于未然,不必等到事发之后再焦头烂额的处理。

走动管理最适用于离第一线比较远的高阶主管,组织比较庞大的单位由于层级较多,高阶主管更需勤于走动,协助其做政策性的决定。至于其他层级的主管离工作现场比较接近,平时就应该透过敏锐的观察,搜集必要的讯息。走动管理是一种方法或技术,不是一种理论,强调高阶主管应及时搜集第一手的讯息,至于其他经营管理事项,则仍应采取其他适当的方法或技术。


 

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